Body adornment has always included body painting, tattooing, and other kinds of body art, this has been the case over the ages; but in recent times, body art has become more varied and endlessly creative. Wellman, R., & Pinkerton, J. (2015). The development of a music therapy protocol: A Music 4 Life® case report of a veteran with PTSD. Music and Medicine, 7(3), 24-39. Early landmarks included being the first gallery to show Andy Warhol in the Bay Area (1982), and holding the first exhibition on the West Coast (in a gallery or museum) of the Russian Avant-Garde 1910-1930 (1980, 17 more retrospectives have since been mounted). The PhD, which is required for students who want to work as university professors in musicology, music history, or music theory, takes three to five years of study after the master’s degree, during which time the student will complete advanced courses and undertake research for a dissertation. The DMA is a relatively new degree that was created to provide a credential for professional performers or composers that want to work as university professors in musical performance or composition. The DMA takes three to five years after a master’s degree, and includes advanced courses, projects, and performances. In Medieval times, the study of music was one of the Quadrivium of the seven Liberal Arts and considered vital to higher learning. Within the quantitative Quadrivium, music, or more accurately harmonics , was the study of rational proportions. Of course, Mr. Cheung doesn’t really have authentic music from a distant world but that is how he referred to the music he developed for his study. He created a novel ‘genre’ of music described as, randomly generated combinations of tone-triplets that were combined in a palindrome-like manner”. While that may not sound very pleasant, the short stimuli were actually quite pleasing to the ear. Vincent’s stimuli allowed the team to overcome the confounding hurtle of local dependencies. Importantly, there were sequences that conformed to a fabricated musical grammar as well as sequences that did not. This opened the door to determining where in the brain musical, non-local, dependencies are processed. Rentfrow, P. J., Goldberg, L. R., & Levitin, D. J. (2011). The structure of musical preferences: A five-factor model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100(6), 1139-1157. We are not looking for articles that have been published elsewhere, are simple regurgitations of content, or that are written purely to promote a blog or brand. We are also not looking for authors whose main motivation is to make money via unnecessary links, products, or spammy SEO practices—if money is your only goal, our Network Sites are not the right venue for your information. Receptive listening music therapy techniques are designed to improve your engagement with the music. As you become more engaged in the music experience, you become more motivated to participate in your treatment as well.