History, Characteristics, Movements

Andy Warhol was a famous and well-respected American ‘Pop’ artist, considered even as a ‘Post Renaissance Man’ for his unique and unmatched style. I wondered: Could our processing of music be so different, or so basic, that abilities relating to it remained accessible in people so limited in function? In 1978, little was known about … Continue reading “History, Characteristics, Movements”

Andy Warhol was a famous and well-respected American ‘Pop’ artist, considered even as a ‘Post Renaissance Man’ for his unique and unmatched style. I wondered: Could our processing of music be so different, or so basic, that abilities relating to it remained accessible in people so limited in function? In 1978, little was known about music and brain function. Today, as a result of exponentially increasing research, particularly over the past five years, we can venture some initial answers to my question. Music has been shown to trigger the nucleus accumbens in the brain, and that structure is also associated with dopamine, the chemical the brain releases during eating and sex, so experts believe that music is biologically desired and rewarded. There was another study that used an fMRI machine to examine the activity of the nucleus accumbens while people listened to music. Researchers played 60 clips of novel songs to participants and then they asked how much money the participants would pay for the song. The more activity the music created in the nucleus accumbens, the more people were willing to spend. Another study, conducted by scientists from University of Helsinki (Finland), Aarhus University (Denmark) and University of Bari (Italy), has proven that love of music is determined by genetics and depends on the function of the neurotransmitter dopamine. It helps humans anticipate pleasure, remember it and strive for it despite discomfort. Scientists noted that, having listened to music, participants of their experiment experienced functional changes in their dopamine receptors, which improved their mood. The researchers noted that this is the first study that has shown that music affects the brain’s physical structure. In the third episode of our short introductions to leading Abstract Expressionist painters, the RA’s Artistic Director Tim Marlow looks at the work of Joan Mitchell. The visual outcome of an artistic movement, or an artist. For example, the style of Abstract Expressionism is manifest as large canvases with non figurative and often chaotic imagery and application. The mature style of Piet Mondrian is geometric, with a white background, a black grid formation and primary colours. In 1975 Davy Brown won a modern art scholarship from the Institute of Cultural Affairs in Chicago. This enabled Davy to travel extensively in the USA and Canada. He was also able to further develop his skills as a talented contemporary Scottish artist. Davis, Elliot Bostwick, Erica E. Hirshler, Carol Troyen, Karen E. Quinn, Janet L. Comey, and Ellen E. Roberts. American Painting. MFA Highlights. Entry Hans Hofmann,” p. 218. Boston: MFA Publications, 2003. Participants in this study were female and male adult residents of an Integrated Dual Diagnosis Treatment unit (IDDT) within a larger substance use disorder treatment program in the Great Lakes Region. Each participant had a primary diagnosis of substance use disorder and a secondary mental illness, unknown to the researchers unless the participant chose to share this information. Typical diagnoses were confirmed by the program staff as Affective Disorders (Depression, Bi-Polar Disorder) and Anxiety Disorders (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder). In rare cases, residents were diagnosed with Personality Disorders, Schizophrenia, and Schizo-Affective Disorder. No noticeable symptoms of psychosis were noted by the researchers during music therapy sessions. All residents took psychotropic medications.