The market for Chinese contemporary art has developed at a feverish pace, becoming the single fastest-growing segment of the international art market. David Anderson Gallery, New York. Arshile Gorky: Drawings: 1929 – 1934. 3 February – 1 March 1962. Catalogue with excerpts by Arshile Gorky. Frederick A. Sweet, Three American Paintings,” Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 39, 1 (Jan. 1945), 5-7, ill. The relevance of these passages of late antique monastic hagiography and the later portrait paintings from Apollo’s monastery to early imperial customs may not be immediately evident, in part because modern scholars continue to battle the stereotyping of Coptic monks as poor illiterate peasants that had begun to emerge already in the fourth century. We need look no further than Athanasius’s strategic mischaracterization of Antony as barely lettered and Jerome’s similar mischaracterization of Coptic simplicity in the preface to his translation of the Pachomian , e.g., E. A. Clark, Reading Renunciation: Asceticism and Scripture in Early Christianity (Princeton, NJ, 1999), 53-56. The stereotype of Coptic simplicity reached mythic proportions; see J. E. Goehring, The Dark Side of Landscape: Ideology and Power in the Christian Myth of the Desert,” JMEMS 33, no. 3 (2003): 437-51. The wall paintings at Apollo’s monastery surely did not frame social spaces of poverty and ignorance (nor should these paintings of a sixth- to seventh century semi-cenobitic monastery be held to the saintly standards of the fourth-century founders of anchoritic and cenobitic monasticism). The portrait programs created visually impressive places that did not fit the legendary ascetic discipline of Egyptian monasticism presented in such well-known texts as those of Athanasius and Jerome. Of course, the painted portrayals of fathers in formal tableaux in paradise do not reflect everyday monastic clothing. They may acknowledge softer living among some later monks. In one fifth-century saying, for example, a Roman aristocrat-turned-Desert Father explained to an Egyptian peasant-turned-Desert Father (and to the reading audience) why it was right for him to maintain a relatively luxurious standard of living.Apophthegmata Patrum 10.110, trans. J. Wortley, The Book of Elders: Sayings of the Desert Fathers; The Systematic Collection (Collegeville, MN, 2012), 170-72. Fuchs, Rudi H. Funktiesvantekenen \ Functions of Drawing. Exh. cat. Otterlo: Rijksmuseum Kröller-Müller, 1975. The evolutionary story can be read as indicating that a version of Brown’s (2000a) musilanguage may have emerged with H. ergaster, perhaps restricted to the exchange of social information, with a further development of a capacity for more general reference with H. heidelbergensis. It seems likely that the divergence between music and language arose first in modern humans, with language emerging to fulfil communicative, ostensive and propositional functions with immediate efficacy. Music, operating over longer timescales, emerged to sustain (and perhaps also to foster) the capacity to manage social interactions, while providing a matrix for the integration of information across domains of human experience. Authors propose that music and language enabled the emergence of modern human social and individual cognitive flexibility (Cross 1999). They regard both music and language as subcomponents of the human communicative toolkit—as two complementary mechanisms for the achievement of productivity in human interaction though working over different timescales and in different ways.
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