American Abstract expressionist painter Franz Kline was born on May 23rd 1910 in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. Cash, Sarah, and Terrie Sultan. American Treasures of the Corcoran Gallery of Art. New York: Abbeville Press, 2000. Ockelford, A. (2008). Music for Children and Young People with Complex Needs. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Bois, Yve-Alain, Jack Cowart, and Alfred Pacquement. Ellsworth Kelly: les années françaises, 1948-1954. Exh. cat. Paris: Galerie du Jeu de Paume, 1992. Even if one is not familiar with his name, there would be few that do not recognize da Vinci’s most famous artworks, including the Mona Lisa featured on this lens and The Last Supper. Unfortunately, due to his inclination to experiment with new techniques that often ended in disaster, in addition to his notoriety for procrastination, very few of his paintings survive today. However, despite this, Leonardo was able to incorporate and mix his passion for art with science. His notebooks which contain drawings, scientific diagrams, and his thoughts on the nature of painting have provided the generations that have followed with much inspiration, not to mention, a wealth of information for aspiring artists. One of the drawings found within his notebooks is the now famous and somewhat iconic drawing of the Vitruvian Man (pictured to the left). McShine, Kynaston and Gloria Zea de Uribe. Color. Exh. brochure in Spanish. Bogotá, Colombia: Museo de Arte Moderno, 1975. Geldzahler, Henry. American Accents. Exh. cat. Ottawa: Rothman of Pall Mall Canada Limited, 1983. Bates, D. (2014). Music therapy ethics 2.0”: Preventing user error in technology. Music Therapy Perspectives, 32(2), 136-141. Aldridge, D., & Brandt, G. (1991). Music therapy and Alzheimer’s disease. British Journal of Music Therapy, 5(2), 28-37. Geometric Abstract Art from the Lillian H. Florsheim of Fine Arts. Exh. cat. Chicago: University of Chicago David and Alfred Smart Gallery, 1976. Beat is the basic unit of time, the pulse (regularly repeating event), of the mensural level (or beat level). The beat is often defined as the rhythm listeners would tap their toes to when listening to a piece of music, or the numbers a musician counts while performing, though in practice this may be technically incorrect (often the first multiple level). In popular use, beat can refer to a variety of related concepts including: tempo, meter, specific rhythms, and groove. Wilkin, Karen. Anywhere in Between” (New York Studio School exhibition review). The New Criterion (June 2003): 49-51. So, when did our ancestors begin making music? If we take singing, then controlling pitch is important. Scientists have studied the fossilized skulls and jaws of early apes, to see if they were able to vocalize and control pitch. About a million years ago, the common ancestor of Neanderthals and modern humans had the vocal anatomy to sing” like us, but it’s impossible to know if they did. Another important component of music is rhythm. Our early ancestors may have created rhythmic music by clapping their hands. This may be linked to the earliest musical instruments, when somebody realized that smacking stones or sticks together doesn’t hurt your hands as much. Many of these instruments are likely to have been made from soft materials like wood or reeds, and so haven’t survived. What have survived are bone pipes. Some of the earliest ever found are made from swan and vulture wing bones and are between 39,000 and 43,000 years old. Other ancient instruments have been found in surprising places. For example, there is evidence that people struck stalactites or rock gongs” in caves dating from 12,000 years ago, with the caves themselves acting as resonators for the sound.